This report explores the different forms that public sector involvement has taken at the five Integration Initiative sites, documents the most important public‐sector‐related outcomes of the Initiative, and helps to develop a better understanding of what factors may be affecting success across sites.

One of the fundamental elements of the Living Cities Integration Initiative (TII), from its inception in 2010, was the belief that improving the lives of low‐income residents of cities would be impossible without help from the public sector, since only government has the ability to direct resources on the scale that would be necessary to make fundamental changes.   

Living Cities commissioned a deep dive by Mt. Auburn Associates to shed light on the relationship between The Integration Initiative (TII) work and the public sector. This report, The Role of the Public Sector in the Integration Initiative: Executive Summary, explores the different forms that public sector involvement has taken at the five TII sites, documents the most important public‐sector‐related outcomes of the Initiative, and helps to develop a better understanding of what factors may be affecting success across sites. Finally, it presents key findings on the role of the public sector in complex cross‐sector system change initiatives.